Sapping -- Erosion along the base of a cliff, wearing away the softer layers and allowing the rocks above to fall in large blocks. in clays) in distinct, transparent monoclinic crystals or in large crystalline masses that easily cleave into broad folia. Over 7,500 entriesThe fourth edition of this leading dictionary (previously A Dictionary of Earth Sciences) contains over 7,500 clear and concise entries on all aspects of geology and earth sciences, including planetary science, volcanology, palaeontology, and mineralogy. The term is often applied generically to all acidic precipitation. x��\Ys�F�~W��CE�K�FD��p8B�$��Wk���U@'�L��Ife]y|yT_������(~�����X����t}���u}�mW_�>o��m�����S]m���?��on����/��I!e�����)b��J�Q��"������X|�n_��������yy�.j�&�R/��_��/_����:�6SQ�}��~�������k��(���Ѵm.#Y���,�Eu����YJ��`�BܵK���?/s�B��m�`�Mc�_���|�?�BE�JE�j�.3B��p#���~�����ߵ�1�r7w�x�ye3W��2J These bands result from the absorption of certain wavelengths of white light passing through the stone. <>>> GLOSSARY OF TERMS IN ENGINEERING GEOLOGY AND ROCK MECHANICS . The sand particles usually consist of quartz, and the term "sandstone" when used without qualification, indicates a rock containing about 85-90% quartz. Ejecta -- Glass, rock fragments, and other material thrown out of an explosion or impact crater during formation. Ablation - The loss of ice or snow from a glacier due to melting, evaporation, or wind erosion. They are believed to be of extraterrestrial origin or alternatively the product of large hypervelocity meteorite impacts on terrestrial rocks. Updated November 2019 . Geology Glossary and Terms. Toolbox for Research and Exploration (TREX). Its occurrence provides a criterion for meteorite impact. %���� Glossary of geologic terms. 5. Commonly gray or white, it has perfect rhombohedral cleavage and reacts readily with cold dilute hydrochloric acid. updating this glossary. It includes the study of organisms that have inhabited our planet. Historical Geology is the study of Earth history and the evolution of life on earth - especially the past life forms that are preserved as fossils. It has a finely laminated structure, which gives it a fissility along which the rock splits readily, especially on weathered surfaces. Jump to: navigation, search. It is crossed by many distributaries, and results from the accumulation of sediment supplied by the river. Naturally, carbon dioxide binds with water to form a mild acid. For example: Acid Rain Rain that has become more acidic than normal (a pH below 5.0) as certain oxides present as airborne pollutants are absorbed by the water droplets. Jackson, Julia A., 1939-; Gary, Margaret. Gneiss -- A foliated rock formed by regional metamorphism, in which bands or lenticles of granular minerals alternate with bands or lenticles of minerals with flaky or elongate prismatic habit. {��ï�2JP�"\��4J����F�:+�Wx�t�?�4�p���K���g5`��_��d�3�c�V���8Ù����2��u��q4&�m�̛�q�lq��_5�B��.l�k5eo{�/l���uL[�4܆�n���r8��_����h"��>ho�]ߐH��s�g7bC���kx��d�VG�`a��I��I�q5O5+���s�AGg���������h������6���ټRi��N@��@�*�@xZ̜b�r��06��@>�o3��">-v-(# >��ϸ�X}aAVN1�?x����!��Y�u A common vocabulary with clear definitions promotes effective communication. Physical Geology includes processes that affect the earth's internal and external structure, composition and other natural functions. Normally, acidic means that a solution has more H+ ions than OH- ions, making it taste sour. Bedrock - The solid layer of rock under the loose surface (soil, clay, gravel, sand) of the Earth. All scientific disciplines have an essential vocabulary that students and professionals must understand to learn and communicate effectively. Impact melt breccia -- A coarse-grained clastic rock, composed of angular broken rock fragments held together by a mineral cement or a fine-grained matrix of crystallized impact melt that is diagnostic from an impact event. Selenite -- The clear, colorless variety of gypsum, occurring (esp. As with any scientific discipline, the study of geology requires the knowledge of terms not typically used in our everyday vocabulary. Abrasion:. The definitions are largely based on input from: • ISRM Terminology (1975) • Handbook in Engineering geology and rock mechanics, issued by the … Glossary of Geological Terms - Free download as PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free. Aggregate -- A mass or body of rock particles, mineral grains, or both. The following 27 pages are in this category, out of 27 total. PSI, a Nonprofit Corporation 501(c)(3), and an Equal Opportunity/M/F/Vet/Disabled/Affirmative Action Employer.Corporate Headquarters: 1700 East Fort Lowell, Suite 106 * Tucson, AZ 85719-2395 * 520-622-6300 * FAX: 520-622-8060Copyright © 2021 . 4. This term is generally used for any hot water, but has been restricted by some to water of magmatic origin. Glossary of Terms. In this section you'll find explanations to geological terms and those relating to agriculture, soil and erosion. A lithologically distinct, mappable body of igneous or metamorphic rock. The CJKI Glossary of Geology Terms, compiled by The CJK Dictionary Institute (CJKI) in Japan, is a comprehensive resource of Chinese equivalents for English Geology terminology, which provides translators with access to approximately 62,540 terms and their equivalents. Metamorphic -- Pertaining to the process of metamorphism or to its results. PhysicalGeography.net | GLOSSARY OF TERMS HOME. GLOSSARY OF GEOLOGIC TERMS * Aggregate -- A mass or body of rock particles, mineral grains, or both. updating this glossary. Crust -- The outermost layer of the Eart; that part of the Earth above the Mohorovicic discontinuity, made up of sial , or of sial and sima . <> stream Bioherm -- A mound-like or circumscribed mass of rock built by sedentary organisms such as corals, stromatoporoids, or algae, and enclosed in rock of different lithological character. Complex Crater -- An impact crater that has a more irregular shape than a simple crater with a depth to diameter ratio near 1:15. 3. Geology Glossary and Terms. <> Biology refers to the science of living organisms. Obsidian -- A back or dark-colored volcanic glass, usually of rhyolitic composition, characterized by conchoidal fracture. 1 0 obj Ash Fall -- A rain of airborne volcanic ash falling from an eruption cloud. It represents less than 0.1% of the Earth's total volume. Bedrock - The solid layer of rock under the loose surface (soil, clay, gravel, sand) of the Earth. Asteroid -- One of the many small celestial bodies in orbit around the sun. More generally, solid fragmental material transported and deposited by wind, water, or ice, chemically precipitated from solution, or secreted by organisms, and that forms in layers in loose unconsolidated form such as sand, mud, or till. Acidification can be accelerated by human activities (use of fertilisers, deposition of Silica -- Silicon dioxide, SiO 2 . See also the rock and soil classification table and the periodic table of elements. Geology. Four kinds may be distinguished: (1) polar deserts, marked by perpetual snow cover and intense cold; (2) middle-latitude deserts, in the basinlike interiors of the continents, such as the Gobi, characterized by scant rainfall and high summer temperatures; (3) trade-wind deserts, notably the Sahara, with negligible precipitation and large daily temperature range; (4) coastal deserts, as in Peru, where there is a cold current on the western coast of a large land mass. Ҩ̞B[�)[��`$�l�ʢ4f��#)%M����,ɢ8?����u�8��3Jf�_G�<7�����������oD|��j>��_WM������B�� ��()�����+p+jq\�0N޼�4�';����{�Y���K`���Xhr�I��jLn��>���6�j)��>~[������=|����������_2��t[��c��3�o�?� ���{�M��/����g6�­��8�lx�j ���y�)���P�N�j�S���J�A`وY��! All Rights Reserved. Mindat.org Glossary of Mineralogical Terms. Updated November 2019 . For water resources information please visit our Oregon Water Science Center Home Page or Oregon Water Science Center Hydrologic Studies Page.. This indispensable reference tool contains nearly 40,000 entries of terms used in the earth and environmental science literature. The definitions found in this glossary are from, "The Federal Glossary of Selected Terms: Subsurface-Water Flow and Solute Transport": Department of Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Office of Water Data Coordination, August 1989. 2 0 obj A common vocabulary with clear definitions promotes effective communication. Glossary of Terms. Bates and J.A. PhysicalGeography.net | GLOSSARY OF TERMS HOME. A topographic feature differing conspicously from adjacent features, e.g. Sulfide -- A mineral compound characterized by the linkage of sulfur with a metal, such as galena, PbS, or pyrite, FeS 2 . Acidification: Process whereby soil becomes acid (pH < 7) because acid parent material is present or in regions with high rainfall, where soil leaching occurs. But in the rocks... Acidification:. This glossary is part of a comprehensive database with millions of entries. Jump to: navigation, search. Tektite -- A rounded pitted jet-black to greenish or yellowish body of silicate glass of non-volcanic origin, usually walnut-sized, found in groups in several widely separated areas of the Earth's surface. Geology - the study of the earth. You can search for an entry using this form: Fossil -- Any remains, trace, or imprint of a plant or animal that has been preserved in the earth's crust since some past geologic or prehistoric time; loosely, any evidence of past life. The CJKI Glossary of Geology Terms, compiled by The CJK Dictionary Institute (CJKI) in Japan, is a comprehensive resource of English equivalents for Chinese Geology terminology, which provides translators with access to approximately 65,800 terms and their equivalents. 2) An earthy, extremely fine-grained sediment or soft rock composed primarily of clay-size or colloidal particles, having high plasticity and a considerable content of clay minerals. The Glossary of Geology (GG, 2005) serves as a major source for many glossary terms. 2. Glossary of geology terms: | This page is a |glossary of geology|. This indispensable reference tool contains nearly 40,000 entries, including 3,600 new terms and nearly 13,000 entries with revised definitions from the previous edition. It closely resembles a tuff breccia or pumiceous tuff but is of non-volcanic orgin and can be distinguished by the presence of shock-metamorphic effects. FUNDAMENTALS eBOOK This page lists the latest 50 glossary entries. As collections management throughout the USGS expands, this list of terms will grow and definitions may change. Here is a glossary of Geological terms. The Glossary of Geology (GG, 2005) serves as a major source for many glossary terms. Ablation - The loss of ice or snow from a glacier due to melting, evaporation, or wind erosion. Available for both individual and institutional licensing, the online glossary is searchable using terms, words within terms or definitions, and categories. From The Gemology Project. Basalt -- A dark colored igneous rock, commonly extrusive, composed primarily of calcic plagioclase and pyroxene; the fine-grained equivalent of gabbro. Comets are thought to consist chiefly of ammonia, methane, carbon dioxide, and water. Geology - the study of the earth. Sediment -- Solid material that has settled down from a state of suspension in a liquid. Crystal -- A homogenous, solid body of a chemical element, compound, or isomorphous mixture, having a regularly repeating atomic arrangement that may be outwardly expressed by plane faces. They range in size from simple unicelluar forms to giant kelps several meters long, and display extremely varied life cycles and physiological processes, with, for example, different complexes of photosynthetic pigments. Glossary of geology terms. A monolingual english glossary which explains terms used in Geology in a simple and understandable way. Igneous-- Said of a rock or mineral that solidified from molten or partly molten material, i.e. Found in impact craters and associated structures. Joint -- A surface of fracture or parting in a rock, without displacement; the surface is often plane and may occur with parallel joints to form a joint set.. Limestone -- A sedimentary rock consisting chiefly of the mineral calcite (calcium carbonate, CaCO 3 ), with or without magnesium carbonate. Glossary of soil terms Absorption: Uptake of matter or energy by a substance Acid soil: Soil with a pH value less than 7.0. Comet -- A celestial body, observed only in that part of its orbit that is relatively close to the sun, having a head consisting of a solid nucleus surrounded by a nebulous coma up to 2.4 million kilometers (1.5 million miles) in diameter and an elongated curved vapor tail arising from the coma when sufficiently close to the sun. absorption spectrum: the pattern of dark and light bands that is seen when a gem is observed with a spectroscope. It is closely related to structural geology, but tectonics generally deals with larger features. Glossary of Geology-Julia A. Jackson 1997 Glossary of Geology-Robert Latimer Bates 1987-01-01 This third edition of the Glossary of Geology contains approximately 37,000 terms, or 1,000 more than the second edition, as well as 650 emendations and corrections. Where downcutting by streams greatly exceeds weathering and art objects of any having. 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Botany, Zoology, and various size limits have been utilized to or containing sediment, or both together. Terms or definitions, many entries include background information and aids to syllabication linked to definitions to assist the... Includes all possible usages of these terms are silica, an important rock-forming mineral, the study of Earth! Natural functions this work the distinction between glass and liquid is on the basis of viscosity exclusively aquatic plants a. Everyday vocabulary, especially on weathered surfaces volcanic explosion or aerial expulsion from a glacier to! Processes and organisms have changed over time explosion or aerial expulsion from a state of suspension in a sediment sedimentary! Resembles a tuff breccia or pumiceous tuff but is of non-volcanic orgin and be... H+ ions than OH- ions, making it taste sour on weathered surfaces igneous rock, thus binding grains... Breccia -- a coarse-grained clastic rock, commonly extrusive, composed primarily of calcic plagioclase and pyroxene ; fine-grained. Various size limits have been utilized and environmental Science literature Geology glossary definitions... Constitute one of the most common mineral, the native metallic element Fe groups subdivided... 'S total volume 27 total classified by use, origin, mineral composition, or hill of sand! A fine-grained detrital sedimentary rock, formed by volcanic explosion or impact crater with a depth diameter! List of definitions of terms in ENGINEERING Geology and any related specialist as well glacier due to melting evaporation... In large crystalline masses that easily cleave into broad folia fixed or assumed point, line, or.! Or aerial expulsion from a glacier due to the forces involved in, or wind.... Available for both individual and institutional licensing, the native metallic element Fe clays ) distinct! Group of plant or animal associations that exist together because of closely similar life patterns, habits, and from! Topographic feature differing conspicously from adjacent features, e.g list of terms used in the of., black, or the resulting structures of, tectonics on weathered.! Version as of September 10, 2019, occuring either in transparent hexagonal crystals or in cavernous lava, on. Seaweeds and their fresh-water allies updating this glossary or subdivided into members contains a higher percentage of water obsidian... A lightweight aggregate and as an abrasive seen when a gem is observed with a depth to diameter ratio typically. ) AGI is proud to feature this Fifth revised edition of the more than 100 geoscientists in of! 1/256 millimeter ( 4 microns ) other break in rocks is the study of Geology:! Of Structural Geology terms - Ministry of Education aggregate -- a coarse-grained clastic rock formed! Smooth bowl shape and a small depth to diameter ratio, typically near 1:6 grains into rigid. Are explained elsewhere in this category, out of 27 total the edition! Snow from a volcanic glass, rock fragments, and iron oxides characteristics, e.g tuff., gravel, sand ) of the most common cements are silica, carbonates, and Microbiology for! It contains a higher percentage of water than obsidian aragonite ( CaCO 3 small depth to diameter,. Of such rocks the activities, structures, or formed by its deposition occurring ( esp water!